When the kidneys lose their function, that is filtering wastes from the body, toxic wastes start accumulating in the body. This is called Kidney failure. This situation occurs when a patient suffers from certain diseases such as Malignant Hypertension, Chronic Infections, Diabetes, Glomeruli which is inflammation and scarring of the filters in the kidney, Polycystic Kidney Disease and also due to Autoimmune disorders like Lupus. Most of the patients who need a renal transplant will be mostly on dialysis.
The surgery takes approximately three hours. The donor kidney will be placed in the lower abdomen, the blood vessels from the donor's kidney will be connected to the patient's body and the ureter from the donor's kidney will be connected to the patient's bladder. Blood will start flowing through the new kidney and it begins its function of filtering.